The Material Science of Metal 3D Printing

  • Published: 26 October 2019
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    Writer/Narrator: Brian McManus
    Editor: Stephanie Sammann (
    Animator: Mike Ridolfi (
    Sound: Graham Haerther (
    Thumbnail: Simon Buckmaster

    A great deal of the information in this video was retrieved through interviews with Christophere M Magazzeni a PhD student in Oxford University and with Professor Roger Reed a founder of Oxmet. Other relevant references are listed below.

    Thank you to AP Archive for access to their archival footage.

    Music by Epidemic Sound:


    Thank you to my patreon supporters: Adam Flohr, Henning Basma, Hank Green, William Leu, Tristan Edwards, Ian Dundore, John & Becki Johnston. Nevin Spoljaric, Jason Clark, Thomas Barth, Johnny MacDonald, Stephen Foland, Alfred Holzheu, Abdulrahman Abdulaziz Binghaith, Brent Higgins, Dexter Appleberry, Alex Pavek, Marko Hirsch, Mikkel Johansen, Hibiyi Mori. Viktor Józsa, Ron Hochsprung
  • Science and Technology Science and Technology

Comments • 1 258

  • Real Engineering
    Real Engineering   2 months back

    I do not have enough time to make a teamtrees video for Real Engineering, but we did make a video about methods to conserve rainforest habitats over on Real Science. I planted 1000 trees yesterday over on Every tree gets us closer to our 20 million target.

    • John Cena
      John Cena  6 days back

      Check out liquid metal technologies in California

    • chris77777777ify
      chris77777777ify  6 days back

      Real Engineering What about wet powder.

    • Brian Wilson
      Brian Wilson  1 months back

      @U.N. (APH) Yes you right. It has to be that X-axis stand for N (Cycle)

    • Clarissa Danae
      Clarissa Danae  1 months back

      What about future 3d printing machines capable of printing faster or printing parts in parallel?

  • TheMarcusGomez
    TheMarcusGomez  3 days back

    Super Dracos!

    • Jose Martinez
      Jose Martinez  4 days back

      Except that material removed isn’t thrown away, it’s recycled

      • Mikhail Panzo
        Mikhail Panzo  6 days back

        You know those games where you just give them like 1k units iron 200 units gold 300 copper and so on to manufacture a recipe you bought? Yeah, we're getting close to that.

        • sellery1803
          sellery1803  7 days back

          The best part of this channel is that I’m slowly understanding more and more of what he’s talking about as I’m studying engineering in college

          • Argentius Darkkon
            Argentius Darkkon  1 weeks back

            Why can’t they use pressurized chambers to perform the 3D printing in?
            The reason I say this is because pressure chambers are used with many other types of manufacturing to remove air bubbles from the products..
            Just like Tesla could simply use all four wheels as generators to keep the batteries charged while the electric can drives down the road, which in turn means you never have to pay for electricity to recharge your car and you can drive until the car is rusted to the ground for free..

            • Jeff Zekas
              Jeff Zekas  1 weeks back

              I want a 3-D printer so I can build an exact replica of a 1936 Bugatti Type 57SC Atlantic ...

              • Matthew Kennedy
                Matthew Kennedy  1 weeks back

                Why nothing about Titomics? (TTT:ASX)

                • MISC BITS
                  MISC BITS  1 weeks back

                  In a lot of cases 3d printing can replace 100 parts and 50 hours of labour assembling them. In these cases the fab time isn't a disadvantage

                  • Daniel Dodd
                    Daniel Dodd  1 weeks back

                    Theses Nothing here about Cold Spray methods of 3D printing metal objects... Why?

                    • Dan Patterson
                      Dan Patterson  1 weeks back

                      The continued advances in materials science and industrial laser technology has made laser materials processing a wide-open field. There is SO much that hasn't even been tried yet!

                      • Xander Martinez
                        Xander Martinez  1 weeks back

                        13:14 Machine Learning and Linear Regression

                        • Xander Martinez
                          Xander Martinez  1 weeks back

                          6:51 adamization and SN fatyeuge

                          • Ryan Garcia
                            Ryan Garcia  2 weeks back

                            might also be worth noting that while it's not metal - 3D photopolymer resin printers are extremely cheap online now (around $250) and can produce some great models. You can also use them to cast jewelry and other small metal parts pretty easily with new castable waxes and other ash-free burnables (~$300/kg from some suppliers).

                            • Trent Pettyjohn
                              Trent Pettyjohn  2 weeks back

                              Maybe suspending the metal powder in something like mineral oil could work?

                              • Rodrigo Aguilar
                                Rodrigo Aguilar  2 weeks back

                                It's pronounced pArts not pErts.

                                • Bloody Pommel Studios
                                  Bloody Pommel Studios  2 weeks back

                                  12:43 Found Michael!

                                  • Inyalabudbud Punjabbidaliwad

                                    Holy crap I thought he was talking about fruit.......pearts.......😂

                                    • Ahmed Ayash
                                      Ahmed Ayash  2 weeks back

                                      Hi there I in order to they have to try add magnet below the the wielding sheet.

                                      • Harvey Holloway
                                        Harvey Holloway  2 weeks back

                                        If you can build rocks we will now know how the pyramids were made. LOL

                                        • Blood Sweat And Tears Forever learning

                                          If you can stack the "islands" like fiberglass (1 layer of fibers going in one direction, and the next in the opasite direction ect) it would be that much stronger

                                          • Blood Sweat And Tears Forever learning

                                            You can use the 3d printed parts to cast the molds, it would save alot of time considering they make the metal part first in real life

                                            • The Fagens
                                              The Fagens  2 weeks back

                                              Can you do one on 3D printed houses.

                                              • Farsheed Ashouri
                                                Farsheed Ashouri  2 weeks back

                                                Please don't say "many". Oh my ears!

                                                • jeremiah bohatkiewicz
                                                  jeremiah bohatkiewicz  2 weeks back

                                                  Perhaps using powder injection instead of a powder bed and multiple articulated lasers would yield better results

                                                  • Fangs Claws
                                                    Fangs Claws  2 weeks back

                                                    what about using a proper magnet from below to hold the powder just as to not get blown but being melt properly?

                                                    • upnuphusky
                                                      upnuphusky  3 weeks back

                                                      Economies of scale will not be turned on its head so long as people/shareholders/companies understand the value of going big. Initial cost will be recouped faster by completing larger, more complex projects more rapidly. Mass purchases of these early stage printers will facilitate technological improvements as well as global competition much like we see with commercial rocket companies (SpaceX prints titanium components of their Raptor boosters if I'm not mistaken).

                                                      • Subhajit Sahu
                                                        Subhajit Sahu  3 weeks back

                                                        Why not sell the titanium alloy to the 3d printing industries?

                                                        • Andrew Vazzana
                                                          Andrew Vazzana  3 weeks back

                                                          I love aerospikes

                                                          • Nika Sokolova
                                                            Nika Sokolova  3 weeks back

                                                            what accent is this?

                                                            • Simon Hansen
                                                              Simon Hansen  3 weeks back

                                                              Fibonachi it.

                                                              • Eitan Tal
                                                                Eitan Tal  3 weeks back

                                                                1:43 isn't this recycled?

                                                                • undertow
                                                                  undertow  3 weeks back

                                                                  Why not put the metal powder through a needle sized nozzle. As it drops out of the nozzle hit it with a number of lasers symmetrically and in such a way that the vapor coming off pushes it directly downward. If you could optimize that process the deposition would become very uniform as your melting the material before substrate contact.

                                                                  • Aaron Washburn
                                                                    Aaron Washburn  2 weeks back

                                                                    undertow that’s done in direct metal deposition. It’s a more free form additive technique that doesn’t use a powder bed.

                                                                • Alex Paterson
                                                                  Alex Paterson  3 weeks back

                                                                  You didn’t mention binder jetting additive manufacturing which alleviates many of the problems associated with DMLS and EBM printing

                                                                  • Dark Mice
                                                                    Dark Mice  4 weeks back

                                                                    Oh no!! Stupid regional accent spoils the film.

                                                                    • Michael Kaba
                                                                      Michael Kaba  4 weeks back

                                                                      Every Engineer I worked for just said, make it do this. Then it was up to me to make it do that. But to be fair the Engineers I worked for did not have a degree. You can have the title of Engineer and not be qualified. At least that's the way it works in house in a factory. At places like NEAPCO. and Becton-Dickson. Both are big name companies. Becton-Dickson has a radioactive Cobalt zap policy to sterilize thier shit in Holdrege Nebraska. Waiting for EPA to hose them. Cancer rates are way above average. B-D makes intravenous syringes at that plant lol. They make the plunger and the needle. When I worked there, they bragged their needle was the most reusable. They said if I PLAY ball I would retire a millionaire. I live with my mother. This shit was 15 years ago. I will be lucky to feed myself when I retire. I worked for both of these companies after serving in the military. I am not a combat vet. But I did serve. I was the lowest in rank during warfare exercises, yet they put me on the most important pieces of equipment.

                                                                      • Anti-corn Doctor
                                                                        Anti-corn Doctor  4 weeks back

                                                                        Soo cool!

                                                                        • Bepske Kaatje
                                                                          Bepske Kaatje  4 weeks back

                                                                          woops, now we can print guns

                                                                          • Harman Singh
                                                                            Harman Singh  4 weeks back

                                                                            Highly informative

                                                                            • Kurt Mueller
                                                                              Kurt Mueller  4 weeks back

                                                                              Really awesome video, but one nitpick:
                                                                              Why would people stick to the normal laser-sintering for high-stress parts? We have a technique called Laser-Engineered-Net-Shape (LENS), which does away with the powder bed and instead has the powder inserted into the laserbeam directly through a funnel shape, making sure that 100% of the powder is always melted.
                                                                              NASA studied this 15-20 years ago and found that the Laser had a forging effect because of the radiation pressure, leading to parts that were around 40% more durable than even traditionally made parts.
                                                                              Instead of using a laser beam, some used an electron beam, although this requires a vacuum chamber to work.

                                                                              Some papers have been published by other laboratories like Sandia National laboratories and the SLM solutions group.

                                                                              • John Solo
                                                                                John Solo  4 weeks back

                                                                                Once we can 3D print organic material? Bam! Replicators. Tea; Earl Grey; hot.

                                                                                • YeshuaAgapao
                                                                                  YeshuaAgapao  1 months back

                                                                                  Canned basic machine learning is included in T-SQL for SQL Server 2017 and 2019. SQL 2016 has limited support and has to be external (.Net or R integration).

                                                                                  • Tomás Sñ-M
                                                                                    Tomás Sñ-M  1 months back

                                                                                    I feel like this video needs to meet a Relatively rocket engine lmao

                                                                                    • 0 0
                                                                                      0 0  1 months back

                                                                                      I don't understand why they don't just melt down and reuse the excess metal from mass manufacturing.

                                                                                      • Lucius Chiaraviglio
                                                                                        Lucius Chiaraviglio  1 months back

                                                                                        So THAT'S why Replicators won't be ready for prime time for quite a while . . . .

                                                                                        • Jean Kerziska
                                                                                          Jean Kerziska  1 months back

                                                                                          You should also talk about powder dangerosity.

                                                                                          • Jean Kerziska
                                                                                            Jean Kerziska  1 months back

                                                                                            It Will Never replace forging mechanical properties. If only one or few layers are missing or have a feeding problem thé part Will have a serious defects.

                                                                                            • faster thanyou
                                                                                              faster thanyou  1 months back

                                                                                              a "real engineer" using the word "ever".... hmmmmmm (12:00)